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Full text of "Internet Archive Newsclips"

"All the News 
That's Fit to Print" 




mt$ 



National Edition 

Northern California: Sun. HiRhs 
50s mountains and north coast to 
70s valleys. Clear tonight. Lows 20s 
to 40s. Clouds and sun tomorrow. 
Bay Area report, Pages 27A-27B. 



VOL. CLXI.. No. 55,700 



012 TVN».Y„tTi« 



SUNDAY. MARCH 4, 2012 



$6.00 




Romney Traces 
Obama's Path 
On Delegates 



. : I ■ . :'. . . i I . •' IKI " . 



Rising From the Debris 

Tim Price in Crittenden. Ky., on Saturday after storms swept an area from the Gulf to the Great Lakes, killing dozens. Page 12. 

From 'Nominal Catholic to Clarion of Faith 



In Santorum's Religious Journey, Wife and Family Were Key 



By SHF.RYL fJAY STOLBERG 

and l M I'll GOODSTEIN 

ORF.AT FALLS, Va. - Rick 
Santonin) was, In Ins own words, 
a "nominal Catholic" when he 
mcl Karen Carver, a neonatal 
nurse and law student, In 1988. As 
they made plans to marry and he 
decided to enter politics, she sent 
him to her father lor advice. 

Dr. Kenneth L. Garver was a 
Pittsburgh pediatrician who spe- 
cialized In medical genetics. The 
patriarch of a large Roman Cath- 
olic lamily, he had treated pa- 
tient* considering abortion but 
was strongly opposed to it 

"We sat across the table and 



the whole evening we talked 
about this issue," Mr. Santorum 
told an anti-abortion group last 
October. He left, he said, con- 
vinced "that there was only one 
place to be, from the standpoint 
of science as well as from the 
standpoint of faith." 

For Mr. Santorum, a Repub- 
lican candidate for president, that 
conversation was an early step 
on a path into a deeply conserva- 
tive Catholic culture that has pro- 
foundly influenced his life as a 
husband, father and politician. 
Over the past two decades, he 
has undergone a religious irans- 
tormatton that is now spurring a 
national conversation about faith 
in the public sphere. 



On the campaign trail, he has 
attacked President Obama for 
"phony theology," warned of the 
"dangers of contraceptives" and 
rejected John F. Kennedy's call 
for strict separation of church 



THE LONG RUN 
A Iransformation 



and state. His bold expressions of 
faith could affect his support in 
this week's Super Tuesday nomi- 
nating contests, possibly helping 
with conservative Christians, es- 
pecially in the South, but scaring 
off voters uncomfortable mixing 
so much religion in politics. 



Central to Mr. Santorum's spir- 
itual life is his wife, whom he calls 
"the rock which I stand upon." 
Before marrying, the couple de- 
cided to recommit themselves to 
their Catholic faith — a turnabout 
for Karen Santorum, who had 
been romantically involved with 
a well-known abortion provider 
in Pittsburgh and had openly 
supported abortion rights, ac- 
cording to several people who 
knew her then. 

The Santorums went on to 
have eight children, including a 
son who died two hours after 
birth in 1996 and a daughter, now 
3, who has a life-threatening ge- 

Continued on Page 20 



ISRAEL'S BACKERS 
PRESSURE OBAMA 
ON IRAN POSITION 



Echoes of '08 in Plan 
to Subdue Santorum 



By MICHAEL D. SHEAR 

WASHINGTON - The first 
phase of the 2012 Republican 
presidential campaign, ending 
with the 10 states that vote this 
week on Super Tuesday, has been 
about money and message. The 
next several months will be about 
maps and math. 

Having failed to secure the 
nomination in the first two 
months of voting, Mitt Romney is 
turning in earnest, his aides say, 
to the playbook of slow-but-sure 
delegate accumulation written by 
none other than the man he 
wants to replace in the White 
House. 

Like the team that engineered 
President Obama's victory in 
2008, Mr. Romney's lawyers and 
strategists say they have devised 
an approach to the second half of 
1 the primary campaign intended 
; to ensure that he methodically 
amasses the 1,144 delegates nec- 
essary to win the nomination, 
staying ahead of his rivals in that 
count even if they win the pop- 
ular vote in some states. 

On Tuesday, that strategy re- 
volves around Virginia, where j 
the failure of Rick Santorum and j 
Newt Gingrich to appear on the : 
1 ballot gives Mr. Romney a good j 

chance of winning all of the 
i state's 49 delegates. He is also ex- 
pected to pick up most of the 41 
1 delegates in Massachusetts, , 
where he served as governor. 
By contrast, fierce efforts by j 
j Mr. Santorum to carry the pop- 
I ular vote in Ohio, even if sue- : 
l cessful, could win him just a few 
! more delegates than Mr. Romney 

because they are allocated pro- i 

, portionally in that state. In addi- j 

i lion, Mr. Santorum's name will ] 

Continued on Page 21 



Romney Wins Caucuses 

Mitt Romney won the nonbind- 
ing Washington State caucuses. 
giving him momentum heading 
into Super Tuesday. Page 21. 



SEEKING HARDER POLICY 



Powerful Lobby Group 

Putting an Emphasis 

on Nuclear Risks 



ByMARKLANDLER 

WASHINGTON - On the eve 
of a crucial visit to the White 
House by Prime Minister Benja- 
min Netanyahu of Israel, that 
country's most powerful Ameri- 
can advocates are mounting an 
extraordinary public campaign to 
pressure President Obama into 
hardening American policy to- 
ward Iran over its nuclear pro- 
gram. 

From the corridors of Congress 
to a gathering of nearly 14,000 
American Jews and other sup- 
porters of Israel here this week- 
end, Mr. Obama is being buffeted 
by demands that the United 
States be more aggressive to- 
ward Iran and more forthright in 
supporting Israel in its own con- 
frontation with Tehran. 

While defenders of Israel rally 
every year at the meeting of the 
pro-Israel lobbying group, the 
American Israel Public Affairs 
Committee, this year's gathering 
has been supercharged by a con- 
vergence of election-year politics, 
a deepening nuclear showdown 
and the often-fraught relation- 
ship between the president and 
the Israeli prime minister. 

Mr. Obama and Mr. Netanyahu 
will both speak to the group, 
known as Aipac, as will the three 
leading Republican presidential 
candidates, who will appear via 
satellite from the campaign trail 
on the morning of Super Tuesday. 
Republicans have seized on 
Iran's nuclear ambitions to ac- 
cuse Mr. Obama of being weak in 
backing a staunch ally and in 
confronting a bitter foe. 

The pressure from an often- 
hoslile Congress is also mount- 
ing. A group of influential sena- 
Continued on Page 4 



In a Flood Tide of Digital Data, 
An Ark Full of Books and Film 

By DAVID STREITFF.LD 



RICHMOND, Calif. - In a 
wooden warehouse in this Indus- 
trial suburb, the 20th century is 
being stored in case of digital dis- 

aster, 

Party-fool shipping containers 
Hacked two hy two are stuffed 

with the most enduring, as well 

.is tome of the most forgettable, 
books of the era. F.very week, 
20,000 new volumes arrive, many 
of them donations from libraries 
and universities thrilled to un- 
load material that has no place in 
the Internet Age. 

Destined for immortality one 
.l.iV l,i .t week vvrii' Ain-'ih.ui 
Indian Policy in the 20th Centu- 
ry," "All New Criftj for Hallow 

een." ' 1 he PW table l-.uilknei ,'' 
'Wli.u to DO When Youi Son or 

Daughter DNoreeaf and "Temp- 
tation*! Kiss,' a romance 

"We wujii to collect one copy o( 
BVOf) book," sold Brewster 
Kahie, who baa spent 13 million 
to bus and operate 'his reposi- 
tory tltuaied |uai north of San 

| ranct CO VOU can never tell 
What is going to punt the portrait 
ol a culture* 

As society embrace* all forma 
of digital entertainment, this uti- 
le i day Noah is Imiklng the othei 



way. A Silicon Valley entrepre- 
neur who made his fortune sell- 
ing a data-mining company to 
Amazon.com in 1999, Mr K.ihle 
founded and runs Ihe Internet 
Archive, a nonprofit organisation 
devoted to preserving Web pages 
— 150 billion so far — and nuking 
texts more widely available. 
But even though he started his 
Continued on Page 4 




iiASM Minus- in* nit si» t.wn trtii.i 

Brewster Knhle, the founder 
of the Internet Archive. 



Bearing Witness in Syria: A War Reporters Last Days 



By TYLER HICKS 

It was damp and cold as Anthony Sha- 
did and I crossed in darkness over the 
barbed-wire fence that separated Turkey 
from Syria lasl month. We were also 
crossing from peace into war, into the 
bloodiest conflict of the Arab Spring, ex- 
ploding (list up the rocky and sparsely 
wooded mountain we had to climb once in- 
side. 

The smugglers waiting for us had 
horses, though we learned they were not 
for us. They were to carry ammunition 
and supplies to the Free Syrian Army. 
That is the armed opposition group, made 
up largely of defectors from President 
Bashar al-Assad's brutal army, we had 
come to interview, photograph and try to 
understand. 

The ammunition seemed evidence of 
the risk we were taking — a risk we did 
not shoulder lightly. Anthony, who pas- 
sionately documented the eruptions in the 
Arab world from Iraq to Libya for The 
New York Times, felt it was essential that 
journalists get into Syria, where about 
7,000 people have been killed, largely out 
of the world's view. We had spent months 
planning to stay safe. 

It turned out the real danger was not 
the weapons but possibly the horses. An- 
thony was allergic. He did not know how 
badly. 

He had a terrible allergic attack that 
first night after we crossed over the 
barbed wire. He had another attack a 




The armed oppos 



in Syria is led by the underequipped Free Syrian Army. 



week later, as horses led us out of Syria, 
just 45 minutes from safety. He died dur- 
ing that attack, at only 43, his wile and 
nearly 2-year-old son waiting for him in 
Turkey. 

He did not write his articles from our 
eventful week of reporting and shooting 
pictures in Syria; his notes, taken ob- 
sessively, are barely decipherable. But he 



would have wanted a record of this final 
trip, some hint of the questions we sought 
to answer: Who were these lighters, and 
did they have any chance of beating the 
Syrian government? How were they 
armed and organized? Was the conflict, as 
In Iraq, worsening sectarian tensions? 

Continued on Page H 



INTERNATIONAL 5 9 
France's German Litmus Test 
in the French atw Hon, one "t the nig 
uea has been Germany — or 

rathei , w he'hei 1 1 ana- should be more 
like iternwny rv,K "' 



NATIONAL It- 23 

Li m da ugh Issues Apology 

Ihe talk radio host said he "chose the 
wrong words" in calling a law student 
who spoke in support of contraceptive 
coverage u prostitute. BAGS ' T 



SUNDAY BUSINESS 

Wall Street Muscle 

Many of the business world's past and 
present titans exercise at Sitaras Fit- 
ness, a Manhattan gym that is the brain- 
child of a bodybuilder. PAGE l 



SPORTSSUNDAY 

Soccer as a Year-Round Duty 

The United States Soccer Federation is 
the first major team sports group to re- 
quire its top boys to play nearly year- 
round and forgo scholastic clubs. PAGE l 



OPINION IN SUNDAY REVIEW 
Nicholas D. Kristof i 





Use your ThankYou Points 

to reach just about any point on the map. 



Redeem points for travel on any 
thankyoucard.citi.com 



i blackout dates. 



• mi««iwi»»«»<"«w 



«*, 1 m»««. «..»j«l»wi»«»'«»«. it C«nr»» K. 



N 



"All the News 
That's Fit to Print' 



®l)c $cto jftork $iwe$ 



National Edition 

Northern California: Sun. Highs 
50s mountains and north coast to 
70s valleys. Clear tonight. Lows 20s 
to 40s. Clouds and sun tomorrow. 
Bay Area report, Pages 27A-27B. 



VOL. CLXI., No. 55.700 gzog J* New York Times SUNDAY, MARCH 4, 2012 Printed in c,i ifornia $6.00 



In a Flood Tide of Digital Data, 
An Ark Full of Books and Film 



By DAVID STREITFELD 



RICHMOND, Calif. — In a 
wooden warehouse in this indus- 
trial suburb, the 20 th century is 
being stored in case of digital dis- 
aster. 

Forty-foot shipping containers 
stacked two by two are stuffed 
with the most enduring, as well 
as some of the most forgettable, 
books of the era. Every week, 
20,000 new volumes arrive, many 
of them donations from libraries 
and universities thrilled to un- 
load material that has no place in 
the Internet Age. 

Destined for immortality one 
day last week were "American 
Indian Policy in the 20th Centu- 
ry," "All New Crafts for Hallow- 
een," "The Portable Faulkner," 
"What to Do When Your Son or 
Daughter Divorces" and "Temp- 
tation's Kiss," a romance. 

"We want to collect one copy of 
every book," said Brewster 
Kahle, who has spent $3 million 
to buy and operate this reposi- 
tory situated just north of San 
Francisco. "You can never tell 
what is going to paint the portrait 
of a culture." 

As society embraces all forms 
of digital entertainment, this lat- 
ter-day Noah is looking the other 



way. A Silicon Valley entrepre- 
neur who made his fortune sell- 
ing a data-mining company to 
Amazon.com in 1999, Mr. Kahle 
founded and runs the Internet 
Archive, a nonprofit organization 
devoted to preserving Web pages 
— 150 billion so far ~- and making 
texts more widely available. 
But even though he started his 
Continued on Page 4 




LIANNE MILTON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES 

Brewster Kahle, the founder 
of the Internet Archive. 



THE NEW YORK TIMES, SUNDAY, MARCH 4, 2012 




PHOTOGRAPHS BY 



>JE MILTON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES 



The Physical Archive of the Internet Archive hopes to eventually collect 10 million items and has just started taking in films. 

In Flood of Digital Data, an Ark Full of Books and Film 



From Page 1 

archiving in the digital realm, he 
now wants to save physical texts, 
too. 

"We must keep the past even 
as we're inventing a new future," 
he said. "If the Library of Alexan- 
dria had made a copy of every 
book and sent it to India or China, 
we'd have the other works of Ar- 
istotle, the other plays of Euripi- 
des. One copy in one institution is 
not good enough." 

Mr. Kahle had the idea for the 
physical archive while working 
on the Internet Archive, which 
has digitized two million books. 
With a deep dedication to tradi- 
tional printing — one of his sons 
is named Caslon, after the 18th- 
century type designer — he ab- 
horred the notion of throwing out 
a book once it had been scanned. 
The volume that yielded the digi- 
tal copy was special. 

And perhaps essential. What if, 
for example, digitization im- 
proves and we need to copy the 
books again? 

"Microfilm and microfiche 
were once a Utopian vision of ac- 
to all information," Mr. 
Kahle noted, "but it turned out 
we were very glad we kept the 
books." 

An obvious model for the re- 
pository is the Svalbard Global 
Seed Vault, which is buried in the 
Norwegian permafrost and holds 
740,000 seed samples as a safety 
net for biodiversity. But the re- 
pository is also an outgrowth of 
notions that Mr. Kahle, 51, has 
had his entire career. 

"There used to be all these dif- 
ferent models of what the In- 
ternet was going to be, and one of 



them was the great library that 
would offer universal access to 
all knowledge," he said. "I'm still 
working on it." 

Mr. Kahle's partners and sup- 
pliers in the effort, the Physical 
Archive of the Internet Archive, 
are very glad someone is saving 
the books — as long as it is not 
them. 

The public library in Burlin- 
game, 35 miles to the south, had a 
room full of bound periodicals 
stretching back decades. "Only 
two people a month used it," said 
Patricia Harding, the city librari- 
an. "We needed to repurpose the 
space." 

Three hundred linear feet of 
Scientific American, Time, Vogue 
and other periodicals went off to 
the repository. The room became 
a computer lab. 

"A lot of libraries are doing 
pretty drastic weeding," said Ju- 
dith Russell, the University of 
Florida's dean of libraries who is 
sending the archive duplicate 
scholarly volumes. "It's very 
much more palatable to us and 
our faculty that books are being 
sent out to a useful purpose rath- 
er than just recycled." 

As the repository expands — 
from about 500,000 volumes to- 
day toward its goal of 10 million 
— so does its range. It has just 
started taking in films. 

"Most films are as ephemeral 
as popcorn," said Rick Prelinger, 
the Internet Archive's movie ex- 
pert. "But as time passes, the 
works we tried to junk often 
prove more interesting than the 
ones we chose to save." 

At Pennsylvania State Univer- 
sity, librarians realized that most 
of their 16-millimeter films were 
never being checked out and that 



there was nowhere to store them 
properly. So the university sent 
5,411 films here, including "Intro- 
ducing the Mentally Retarded" 
(1964), "We Have an Addict in the 
House" (1973) and "Ovulation 
and Egg Transport in the Rat" 
(1951). 

"Otherwise they probably 
would have ended up in a land- 
fill," said William Bishop, Penn 
State's director of media and 
technology support services. 

Not everyone appreciates Mr. 
Kahle's vision. One of the first 




Every week, 20,000 new vol- 
umes arrive at the repository. 

comments on the Internet Ar- 
chive's site after the project was 
announced in June came from a 
writer who said he did not want 
the archive to retain "any of my 
work in any form whatsoever." 

Even some librarians are un- 
sure of the need for a repository 
beyond the Library of Congress. 

"I think the probability of a 
massive loss of digital informa- 
tion, and thus the potential need 
to redigitize things, is lower than 
Brewster thinks," said Michael 
Lesk, former chairman of the de- 
partment of library and informa- 
tion science at Rutgers. But he 
conceded that "it's not zero." 

If serious "1984"-style trouble 



does arrive, Mr. Lesk said, it 
might come as "all Internet in- 
formation falls under the control 
of either governments or copy- 
right owners." But he made clear 
he thought that was unlikely. 

Under a heated tent in the 
warehouse's western corner the 
other day, Tracey Gutierres, a 
digital records specialist, worked 
on a new batch. If a volume has a 
bar code, she scans it to see if the 
title is already in the repository. 
If there is no bar code, she checks 
the International Standard Book 
Number on the copyright page. If 
the book is really old, she puts it 
aside for manual processing. 

Before the books make it the 
150 feet to the shipping contain- 
ers for storage, some will have to 
travel 12,000 miles to China. The 
Chinese, who are keen to build a 
digital library, will scan the books 
for themselves and the archive 
and then send them back. The 
digital texts will be available for 
the visually impaired and other 
legal purposes. 

As word about the repository 
has spread, families are making 
their own donations. 

Carmelle Anaya had no idea 
what to do with the 1,200 books 
her father, Eric Larson, left when 
he died. Then she heard shout 
the project. "He'd be ^Lf, t 
think they would be archiv^ 
maybe someone could check 
them out a hundred years from 
now," said Ms. Anaya, who lives 
in California's Central Valley. 

Her daughter Ashley designed 
a special bookplate. Any readers 
across the centuries will know 
where the copies came from. 
"The books will live on," Ms. 
Anaya said, "even if the people 
can't." 




"All the News 
That's Fit to Print' 



SJlje iN r eUt flork ©tme$ 



National Edition 

Northern California: Sun. Highs 
50s mountains and north coast to 
70s valleys. Clear tonight. Lows 20s 
to 40s. Clouds and sun tomorrow. 
Bay Area report, Pages 27A-27B. 



yOl.CLXI • • No. 55,700 



© 2012 The New York Times 



SUNDAY, MARCH 4, 2012 



Printed in California 



$6.00 



— 



In a Flood Tide of Digital Data, 

^An Ark Full of Books and Film 
By DAVID STREITFELD 
RICHMOND, Calif. — In a way. A Silicon Valley entrepre- 



a 
wooden warehouse in this indus- 
trial suburb, the 20 th century is 
being stored in case of digital dis- 
aster. 

Forty-foot shipping containers 
stacked two by two are stuffed 
with the most enduring, as well 
as some of the most forgettable, 
books of the era. Every week, 
20,000 new volumes arrive, many 
of them donations from libraries 
and universities thrilled to un- 
load material that has no place in 
the Internet Age. 

Destined for immortality one 
day last week were "American 
Indian Policy in the 20th Centu- 
ry," "All New Crafts for Hallow- 
een," "The Portable Faulkner," 
"What to Do When Your Son or 
Daughter Divorces" and "Temp- 
tation's Kiss," a romance. 

"We want to collect one copy of 
every book," said Brewster 
Kahle, who has spent $3 million 
to buy and operate this reposi- 
tory situated just north of San 
Francisco. "You can never tell 
what is going to paint the portrait 
of a culture." 

As society embraces all forms 
of digital entertainment, this lat- 
ter-day Noah is looking the other 



neur who made his fortune sell- 
ing a data-mining company to 
Amazon.com in 1999, Mr. Kahle 
founded and runs the Internet 
Archive, a nonprofit organization 
devoted to preserving Web pages 
— 150 billion so far ~- and making 
texts more widely available. 
But even though he started his 
Continued on Page 4 




L1ANNE MILTON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES 

Brewster Kahle, the founder 
of the Internet Archive. 



S.& P. 500 


1.461.19 


* 


4.58 


Dow industrials 


13.553.10 


* 


40.27 


Nasdaq composite 


3.178.67 


* 


5.28 


10-yr. Treasury yield 


1.84% 


* 


0.03 


The euro 


$1.3106 


In 


0.0012 



Itineraries 
Campus Retreats 

Corporate conferences 
make use of vacation-idled 
facilities at colleges. 6 




Greeks stop work to step up pro- 
tests of austerity measures. 3 

Volatile trading stuns oil markets 
and drives energy shares down. 7 



SportsTuesday 

Pages Bll-15 

Starting Anew 

Andy Pettilte returns 
Tuesday for the Yanks. 



F 



Business Day 



Stye iNVui JJork States 



Bl 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18.2012 



Occupy 

Wall Street: 

A Frenzy 

That Fizzled 

It will be an asterisk in the history 
books, if it gets a mention at all. 

A year ago this week, the Occupy 
Wail Street movement got under way in 
Zuccotti Park in Lower Manhattan. The 
loose group of protest- 
ers, frustrated by the 
economic downturn, 
sought to blame Wall 
- Street and corporate 
dealbook America for many of the 

nation's ills. 
While the movement's first days did 
not receive much news coverage, it 
soon turned into a media frenzy, with 
some columnists comparing its impor- 
tance to that of the Arab Spring, which 
led to the overthrow of leaders in sev- 
eral Middle Eastern and African coun- 
tries, spurred by social media. Images 
of the Wall Street protesters getting ar- 
rested were looped on news channels 
and featured on the covers of newspa- 
pers. Big banks — and the famous 
Charging Bull statue that is an icon of 
Wall Street — were fortified with barri- 
cades. By the end of the year, Time 
magazine had named the protester its 
Person of the Year, perhaps rightly giv- 
en the revolutions taking place around 
the world, but the magazine also 
lumped Occupy Wall Street in among 
the many meaningful movements tak- 
ing place. 

Bui now, 12 months later, it can and 
should be said that Occupy Wall Street 
was — perhaps this is going to sound in- 
delicate — a fad. 

That is not to say that Occupy Wall 
Street had no impact. It created an im- 
portant national conversation about 



Shell Delays Arctic Oil Drilling Until 2013 



NEWS ANALYSIS 



A movement that 
changed the public 
discourse, but little else. 



economic inequality and upward mobil- 
ity. The chant, "We are the 99 percent," 
has become part of the lexicon. Its mes- 
sage has subtly been woven throughout 
the Obama administration's re-election 
campaign, in the Democrats' position 
on everything from taxes on the highest 
earners to the soaring levels of student 
debt. 

But consider this: Has the debate 
over breaking up the banks that were 
too big to fail, save for a change of heart 
by the former chairman of Citigroup, 
Sanlord 1. Weill, really changed or 
picked up steam as a result of Occupy 
Wall Street? No. Have any new regula- 
tions for banks or businesses been en- 
acted as a result of Occupy Wall Street? 
No. Has there been any new meaningful 
push to put Wall Street executives be- 
hind bars as a result of Occupy Wall 
Street? No. 

And even on ihe issues of economic 
inequality and upward mobility — per- 
haps Occupy Wall Street's strongest 
themes — has the movement changed 
the debate over executive compensa- 
tion or education reform? It is noi even 
B close call. 

Is there slill anger and angsi over the 
horrible unemployment problem in the 
United States? Absolutely. But thai sen- 
timeni, and whatever conversation has 
emerged as result, was going to happen 
with or without Occupy Wall Street. 

The Wall Street banks themselves 
hardly fell the pinch o( the protesters, 
beyond considering ihem a nuisance 
and an additional security cost. Despite 
campaigns lor customers to move 
Continued on Page 9 



By CLIFFORD KRAUSS 

HOUSTON — With the prospect of 
rich new oil fields in tantalizing reach, 
Shell Oil announced on Monday that it 
was forced to put off completing wells 
in the Alaskan Arctic for another year 
after a spill containment dome was 
damaged during a testing accident. 

While the company will perform pre- 
liminary work this year on several 
wells in the region, it will not be able to 
drill for oil until next summer at the 
earliest. 

The latest setback in Shell's six-year, 
S4.5 billion effort to drill off the coast of 
Alaska heartened environmentalists, 
who have opposed the drilling program 
at every turn. 

Some suggested that Shell's inability 
to control its containment equipment in 
calm waters under predictable test 
conditions suggested that the company 
would not be able to effectively stop a 
sudden leak in treacherous Arctic wa- 
ters, when powerful ice floes and gusty 
winds would complicate any spill re- 
sponse. 

But the company received a shot of 
encouragement from the Obama ad- 
ministration, which defended Shell's ef- 
forts and expressed the desire to con- 




The Arctic Chal- 
lenger, a barge 
that would cap- 
ture spilled oil, in 
August. Equip- 
ment on the barge 
malfunctioned on 
Saturday during 
testing. 



RUSS KENDALL /BEU1NOHAM HERALD, VIA A 



tinue working with the company to 
open the Arctic for drilling next year. 

Shell expected to receive all the nec- 
essary permits to drill up to five wells 
this summer and fall, but equipment 
problems and persistent sea ice forced 
the company to cut back its program , 
repeatedly. 

"It's a disappointment that this par- 
ticular system is not ready yet," said 
Marvin E. Odum, the president of Shell 
Oil, in an interview. "We've made the 



call that we are better off not drilling in 
hydrocarbons this year." 

It was the third year in a row that 
Royal Dutch Shell, the parent company, 
was frustrated in one of its most am- 
bitious global endeavors. 

In 2010, the disastrous BP oil spill in 
the Gulf of Mexico stalled its efforts to 
win regulatory approval. In 2011, de- 
lays in getting final approval for an air 

Continued on Page 4 



LEAH NASH FOR THEN 



Kickstarter's booth at the XOXO tech conference. Kickstarter has helped about 30,000 projects raise money. 

Instant Internet Heroes 

Success of Crowdfunding Puts Pressure on Tech Entrepreneurs 



By JENNA WORTHAM 

PORTLAND, Ore. — An effort to build a sleek alumi- 
num charging dock for the i Phone generated fervor online 
when it was announced last December. The project's cre- 
ators raised close to SI. 5 million through Kickstarter, a 
crowdfunding Web site, and promised to start shipping 
their Elevation Dock in April to those who had backed the 
project. 

But last week Apple announced a redesigned iPhone 
that is not compatible with the dock — and because of man- 
ufacturing delays, some of the project's original backers 
were still waiting to receive theirs. The designers are now 
scrambling to make an adapter and update the product. 

"I'm just hoping to get mine before the iPhone 6 ships 
at this point," one backer wrote on Kickstarter. 

Crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter and IndieGogo are 
letting designers and other creative people connect with 



audiences who want to finance their dreams, and they are 
becoming increasingly popular. Nearly three million peo- 
ple have helped a total of 30,000 projects meet their fund- 
raising goals on Kickstarter, the largest such site, to the 
tune of S300 million in pledges. 

But for the creators of these projects, getting the 
money is sometimes the easy part. They then have to turn 
their dreams into reality, with a crowd keeping an eye on 
their progress. 

This new model comes with a host of potential pitfalls 
that are often difficult for project creators to anticipate, 
and hard for the armchair philanthropists who back them 
to grasp. Backers are essentially putting their trust in the 
project creators, giving them cash in return for the promise 
of a future reward. 

Those who give a few dollars to a moviemaking 
Continued on Page 2 




Trade Case 

May Produce 

Few Results 



By KEITH BRADSHER 

BEIJING — President Obama's trade 
case against China on cars and auto 
parts will have little immediate impact 
on jobs and companies in the United 
States, but it is one of the few legal op- 
tions available to the United States as 
China's auto industry faces overcapaci- 
ty problems and looks overseas to in- 
crease sales. 

In filing the case on Monday with the 
World Trade Organization, Mr. Obama 
is making a political gesture to Mid- 
western states coping with the pressure 
that Chinese exports are placing on the 
American auto industry. But actual ef- 
fects are likely to be delayed and lim- 
ited. 

World Trade Organization cases typi- 
cally take a year and a half to resolve. 
And unlike antidumping and antisubsi- 
dy cases, which can result in steep tar- 
iffs on imports that stay in place for 
years, the trade organization cases 
often end with the losing country simply 
abandoning the offending policy. 

There can be a requirement that com- 
panies repay previous subsidies, but 
that is often difficult to enforce and can 
require further years of legal wrangling. 

The subsidies at issue are also small 
relative to the scale of Chinese exports, 
which may mean that China's low 
wages, high investment rate and other 
advantages may have played a bigger 
role in the spectacular expansion of Chi- 
nese auto exports than government 
subsidies. 

American trade officials respond that 
while China may have many strengths 
underlying its export prowess, they are 
doing what they can to address those 
policies that may violate international 
trade rules — particularly China's 
emerging policy of setting up so-called 
export bases in which automakers re- 
ceive incentives to make cars and car 
parts for overseas markets. 

"The Obama administration will use 
every available avenue to stand up for 
American workers and businesses in 
the global trading system, and in taking 
this case to the W.T.O. against China 
we're doing so in a way that tackles Chi- 
na's entire export bases program in this 
sector," said Carol Guthrie, the spokes- 
woman for the Office of the United 
States Trade Representative. 

She added, "This administration has 
a consistent record of supporting Amer- 
ican jobs through wins at the W.T.O., 
smart use of all our enforcement op- 
tions and dialogue that gets results for 
American workers as well." 

The Chinese export bases policies are 
so numerous, and affect so many differ- 
ent kinds of products, that it would take 
Continued on Page 2 




A FORD CONTRACT IN CANADA 

After a tentative deal with Ford, 
Ken Lewenza, head of the auto- 
workers' union, extended talks 
with G.M. and Chrysler. Page 3. 



All the TV News Since 2009, on One Web Site 



By BILL CARTER 

Inspired by a pillar of antiquity, the 
Library of Alexandria, Brewster Kahle 
has ;i grand vision for the Internet Ar- 
chive, the giant aggregator and digitizer 
«ti data, which he founded and leads. 

"We want to collect all the books, mu- 
sic ami video that has ever been pro- 




- 



John King of CNN. Internet Archive 
has i worded 20 news channels. 



duced by humans," Mr. Kahle said. 

As of Tuesday, the archive's online 
collection will include every morsel of 
news produced in the last three years 
by 20 different channels, encompassing 
more than 1,000 news series that have 
generated more than 350,000 separate 
programs devoted to news. 

The latest ambitious effort by the ar- 
chive, which has already digitized mil- 
lions of books and tried to collect every- 
thing published on every Web page for 
the last 15 years (that adds up to more 
than 150 billion Web pages), is intended 
not only for researchers. Mr. Kahle said, 
but also for average citizens who make 
up some o( the site's estimated two mil- 
lion visitors each day. "The focus is to 
help the American voter lo better be 
able to examine candidates and issues," 
Mr. Kahle said. "If you want to know ex- 
actly what Mitt Romney said about 
health care in 2009, vou'll be able to find 
it." 



Of course, if you want to discredit or 
satirize a politician based on a clip 
showing some reversal of a position, 
that will be made easier as well. Or, as 
Mr. Kahle put it, "Let a thousand Jon 
Stewarts bloom." 

Many conventional news outlets will 
be available, including CNN, Fox News, 
NBC News, PBS, and every purveyor of 
eyewitness news on local television sta- 
tions. And Mr. Stewart's program, "The 
Daily Show" is one of those 1,000 series 
that is part of the new news archive. 

"Absolutely," Mr. Kahle said. "We 
think of it as news." 

The Internet Archive has been qui- 
etly recording the news material from 
all these outlets, which means, Mr. Kah- 
le said, capturing not only every edition 
of "60 Minutes" on CBS but also every 
minute of every day on CNN. 

All of this will be available, free, to 

those willing to dive into the archive 

Continued on Page 2 




As healthcare costs rise, 
we're still able to offer 
competitive benefits - 

with Aflac." 



Nancy Wilson 

VP Human Resources, Indiana Furniture 



Learn more at aflac.com/nancy 



© 



Affac. 






All the TV News Since 2009, on One Web Site 



By BILL CARTER 

Inspired by a pillar of antiquity, the 
Library of Alexandria, Brewster Kahle 
has a grand vision for the Internet Ar- 
chive, the giant aggregator and digitizer 
of data, which he founded and leads. 

"We want to collect all the books, mu- 
sic and video that has ever been pro- 



nttMBBKHBnnB 




EDWARD M. PIO RODA/CNN 



John King of CNN. Internet Archive 
has recorded 20 news channels. 



duced by humans," Mr. Kahle said. 

As of Tuesday, the archive's online 
collection will include every morsel of 
news produced in the last three years 
by 20 different channels, encompassing 
more than 1,000 news series that have 
generated more than 350,000 separate 
programs devoted to news. 

The latest ambitious effort by the ar- 
chive, which has already digitized mil- 
lions of books and tried to collect every- 
thing published on every Web page for 
the last 15 years (that adds up to more 
than 150 billion Web pages), is intended 
not only for researchers, Mr. Kahle said, 
but also for average citizens who make 
up some of the site's estimated two mil- 
lion visitors each day. "The focus is to 
help the American voter to better be 
able to examine candidates and issues," 
Mr. Kahle said. "If you want to know ex- 
actly what Mitt Romney said about 
health care in 2009, you'll be able to find 
it." 



Of course, if you want to discredit or 
satirize a politician based on a clip 
showing some reversal of a position, 
that will be made easier as well. Or, as 
Mr. Kahle put it, "Let a thousand Jon 
Stewarts bloom." 

Many conventional news outlets will 
be available, including CNN, Fox News, 
NBC News, PBS, and every purveyor of 
eyewitness news on local television sta- 
tions. And Mr. Stewart's program, "The 
Daily Show" is one of those 1,000 series 
that is part of the new news archive. 

"Absolutely," Mr. Kahle said. "We 
think of it as news." 

The Internet Archive has been qui- 
etly recording the news material from 
all these outlets, which means, Mr. Kah- 
le said, capturing not only every edition 
of "60 Minutes" on CBS but also every 
minute of every day on CNN. 

All of this will be available, free, to 
those willing to dive into the archive 

Continued on Page 2 



All the TV News Since 2009, at One Site 



From First Business Page 

starting Tuesday. Mr. Kahle said 
the method for the search for in- 
formation would be the closed- 
captioned words that have ac- 
companied the news programs. 
The user simply plugs in the 
words of the search, along with 
some kind of time frame, and 
matches of news clips will ap- 
pear. 

Mr. Kahle predicted there 
would often be hundreds of 
matches, but he said the system 
had an interface that would make 
it easy to browse quickly through 
30-second clips in search of the 
right one. If a researcher wants a 
copy of the entire program, a 
DVD will be sent on loan. 

The inspiration of the Library 
of Alexandria, the archive of the 
knowledge in ancient world in 
Egypt, was not frivolous. Mr. 
Kahle said that early effort to as- 
Bembto the collected works of civ- 
ilization was in his mind when he 
conceived the idea to use the al- 
most infinite capacity of the Web 
Id pursue the modern equivalent. 
"You could turn all the books 
in the Library of Congress into a 



stack of disks that would fit in 
one shopping cart in Best Buy," 
Mr. Kahle said. He estimates that 
the Internet Archive now con- 
tains about 9,000 terabytes of 
data; by contrast, the digital col- 
lection of the Library of Congress 
is a little more than 300 terabytes, 
according to an estimate earlier 



Collecting 350,000 
separate programs 
devoted to news. 



this year. 

Mr. Kahle calls himself a tech- 
nologist and says he moved to the 
archive project after previously 
founding and selling off two data- 
mining companies, one to AOL, 
the other to Amazon. 

The television news project, 
like his other archive projects, is 
tmanced mainly through outside 
grants, though Mr. Kahle did put 
up some of his own money to 
start. He said grants from the Na- 
tional Archives, the Library of 



Congress and other government 
agencies and foundations made 
up the bulk of the financing for 
the project. He set the annual 
budget at §12 million, and said 
about 150 people were working 
on the project. 

The act of copying all this news 
material is protected under a fed- 
eral copyright agreement signed 
in 1976. That was in reaction to a 
challenge to a news assembly 
project started by Vanderbilt 
University in 1968. 

The archive has no intention of 
replacing or competing with the 
Web outlets owned by the news 
organizations. Mr. Kahle said 
new material would not be added 
until 24 hours after it was first 
broadcast. "We don't expect this 
to replace CNN.com," he said. 

As enormous as the news col- 
lection is, it is only the beginning, 
Mr. Kahle said. The plan is to "go 
back" year by year, and slowly 
add news video going back to the 
start of television. That will re- 
quire some new and perhaps 
more challenging methodology 
because the common use of 
closed-captioning only started 
around 2002. 




"oaWLTON FOB IMt 

Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive, in the company warehouse in Richmond, Calif. 



Mr. Kahle said some new tech- rupt commerce enough that they Archive has embarked upon, 
nique, perhaps involving word get upset with us." "Yes, we want eventually to be 
recognition, would be necessary. But the goals for the news able to make coverage of, say, the 
"We need some interface that is service remain as ambitious as 1956 political conventions avail- 
good enough and doesn't inter- all the other services the Internet able," Mr. Kahle said. 



S.&R500 1,461.19 * 4.58 

Dow industrials 13,553.10 * 40.27 

Nasdaq composite 3,178.67 * 5.28 

10-yr. Treasury yield 1.84% * 0.03 

The euro $1.3106 * 0.0012 



Itineraries 

Campus Retreats 

Corporate conferences 
make use of vacation-idled 
facilities at colleges. 6 




Greeks stop work to step up pro- 
tests of austerity measures. 3 

Volatile trading stuns oil markets 
and drives energy shares down. 7 



Business Day 



Sl)c $cto Jlork Sirnc* 



SportsTuesday 

Pages Bll-15 

Starting Anew 

Andy Pettitte returns 
Tuesday for the Yanks. 15 




oY 



Bl 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 



"All the News 
That's Fit to Print" 



©be JfeUr jjork ®ime$ 



National Edition 

Northern California: Low clouds 
and fog along the coast. Sunny oth- 
erwise. Highs 60s coast to 90s Cen- 
tral Valley. Clouds and fog coast to- 
night. Weather map, Page B8. 



VOL. CLXII... No. 55,898 + 



^2012 The New York Times 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 



Printed in California 



$2.50 



"All the News 
That's Fit to Print" 



®{>e Jfettr ftork ®ime$ 



VOL. CLXII... No. 55,898 + 



© 2012 The New York Times 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 



National Edition 

Northern California: Low clouds 
and fog along the coast. Sunny oth- 
erwise. Highs 60s coast to 90s Cen- 
tral Valley. Clouds and fog coast to- 
night. Weather map, Page B8. 



Printed in California 



$2.50 





All the TV News Since 2009, on One Web Site 



By BILL CARTER 

Inspired by a pillar of antiquity, the 
Library of Alexandria, Brewster Kahle 
has a grand vision for the Internet Ar- 
chive, the giant aggregator and digitizer 
of data, which he founded and leads. 

"We want to collect all the books, mu- 
sic and video that has ever been pro- 




EDWARD M. P10 RODA/CNN 



- 



John King of CNN. Internet Archive 
has recorded 20 news channels. 



duced by humans," Mr. Kahle said. 

As of Tuesday, the archive's online 
collection will include every morsel of 
news produced in the last three years 
by 20 different channels, encompassing 
more than 1,000 news series that have 
generated more than 350,000 separate 
programs devoted to news. 

The latest ambitious effort by the ar- 
chive, which has already digitized mil- 
lions of books and tried to collect every- 
thing published on every Web page for 
the last 15 years (that adds up to more 
than 150 billion Web pages), is intended 
not only for researchers, Mr. Kahle said, 
but also for average citizens who make 
up some of the site's estimated two mil- 
lion visitors each day. "The focus is to 
help the American voter to better be 
able to examine candidates and issues," 
Mr. Kahle said. "If you want to know ex- 
actly what Mitt Romney said about 
health care in 2009, you'll be able to find 
it." 



Of course, if you want to discredit or 
satirize a politician based on a clip 
showing some reversal of a position, 
that will be made easier as well. Or, as 
Mr. Kahle put it, "Let a thousand Jon 
Stewarts bloom." 

Many conventional news outlets will 
be available, including CNN, Fox News, 
NBC News, PBS, and every purveyor of 
eyewitness news on local television sta- 
tions. And Mr. Stewart's program, "The 
Daily Show" is one of those 1,000 series 
that is part of the new news archive. 

"Absolutely," Mr. Kahle said. "We 
think of it as news." 

The Internet Archive has been qui- 
etly recording the news material from 
all these outlets, which means, Mr. Kah- 
le said, capturing not only every edition 
of "60 Minutes" on CBS but also every 
minute of every day on CNN. 

All of this will be available, free, to 
those willing to dive into the archive 

Continued on Page 2 



Sunday, October 14, 2012 



^an^francteco (D)romcte 



WGATtjum PmrDoaacmawa tv» »»»»♦ 



TOP OF THE NEWS 




World/Nation 

«• Campaign loll: Mitt 
ftamnry raDi» college 
student* in a]J important 
Ohio-AlO 

Sporting Green 

» Back bone; Tim Lin- 
(toim. left, and the Gi- 
ant* are *el to open the 
National League Cham - 
piomhip Series against 
the Cardinals. Bl 




Special Section 

It* s the perfect time for 

locals to savor Napa. Ml 

SFiS Style 

Wine Country's artists 

and designers. LI 

Travel 

The enduring appeal of 

souvenir tehotchkes. HI 



Bay Area 

»» Oakland pot: City 
takes on feds in court 
battle to saw nation's 
largest pot dub. CI 
>» Tuition: Foundation 
spending $500 million 
to send 15,000 Africans 
to college. CI 

Business 

►» Sizing up mobile: 
Smartphones and tab- 
lets keep changing size. 
What's going on? Dl 



S.F. bids to play Super Bowl host 

Mayor Lee, 49ers seek starring role for city in '16 or '17 



JOHN 
DIAZ 



May-r Ed Iv*\ ilv- 4'yr% and 
aewral prurnirir-n( < h v l«i<ier» 

bVrvbatntfcrf-fdj saotldni 

fourth-run a bid f'/r San f ran- 
tO for 'for h*rt! ' u > of the 

taper Bowl, l..-n»ronidrhaa 
leairw-d. 



TV National fouiball 
■ Ltajfur K*-xp*-ct«-d i'* an 
nounee Monday whether San 
Pranciico will for in contention 
for American Sportsf nvM 
widely watched event in early 
r 2017. While Ihe game 



irv-U would foe played in the 
tram's new $1.2 billion Santa 
Clara stadium. San Francisco 
would for designated as the 
official hod city and center of 
rrnrmd pregame ai th m^ in 
the week leading up to the 



<*. 






championship game. 

"San Francisco is our 
home," 49ers CEO Jed York 
said in a phone interview Fri- 
day, "it" and when we win a 
Super Bowl, the parade will be 
on Market Street." 

V i lost on the mayor is tile 
v\ inbolic significance of the 

Diaz contintu i on Ail 



SUNDAY PROFILE 

Brrwtrr KahU 

His mission 
— preserve 
our fleeting 
digital past 

By Benny l.vjtnjp I Ufa 

.'.It- waft a 10 
.1 ji . id . onputci v i» ic » 
i-j.i. mi .(in taefta 

liutituu «'i narhootog) a/bena 
in. nd i-.-^«i ■ sbnpJi •.< i 
tin • hanging qu f rion u hut 
. hi , *j do Mi iih youi life ilut 
U worthwhilrf" 

Kahls » an* up Midi two 
.ni%wi-r». The first, developing 

j inn rh hip i eurc tii<- |mi 

vwry of te W phom rorwerca* 
iH'iis. didn't panoul Bui p 
i ■hi- i - -.iiii ii.i|>|n 

I, put tiling hl» inmiil I. 

to - n j'< dir iIikiijI j#c* 

.•I ffarar) ol 
Ali undi la 

ii. i t<i. inri \r» lm« 
niilnj : • >» old Rich 

■ ■ hun h thai 
•ii luiri tin jIH harks heck to 
ihr *n> i'iit I gyptlan library 

| QftJ J 1" It rr|-r»|l 

digital < uitur 
Irtl kn nllnr 

vSj\tM.k Mb huM wlinli 

!ii*e 

iiuim-iimi «•! the l"i« met ji 
» hh inn in- n ill .1. I-. bdlh«n 
\\. I. pegi i thai h*\* ipn 

i .^y., ! be iiunpntflt u 
. hive iin ii h i- • • ■•»»! thr 

■ m 4U 



INDEX 




AGRICULTURE 



C»-7 




100 dairies 
expected 
to be gone 
by year-end 

Hani hit farmers lacing 
bankruptcy, foreclosure 



By Stacy In./ 

I In iuIioh*. (IrotiKhl ami hixh o»ni jihcr* 
jrr da**MMtng » aliforma'tlrl billion dairy 
fnduttf) ( " ual pollll wbaft f jnneT* can't 

! i Irrtl Ihnr ...w. jn.l llinr profn 
atonal irailr ea^aarfaatjDfl hat hern regularly 
rrfrfniurdr%r»*>driil daiMinni tu luicide 

hodtaBft 

I \|.rrt» in th< imluxin rvimatr thai by 
yrmra nul • aaUblum, the larger*! dairy ttate 
in thr mil. hi will ha\T k»t murrthan UJO 
ilainr* lu l«ankrun«n<-». f<«rrl«i»urr» and 
viln KlilL eamt arr bruuc vlauKhjrrrd at Ihr 

i rair in nvirr (Kan IS yrara brrauar 
famirrfc nrrd t.» w\r .HI Ofll a*iv Arcord- 
ii IK lo Ihr \\r%lrrn I'nilrd l>jir\inrii. a < all 
l.-niu tra.1*- kt^*i|>. tlinrrttairy farmrr. tiaw 
nwiuniitrd %utnAr \incr :..«<. dnpairing 
.«rr Kwinn ihnr family » dairira. 

Hu.n r aaataii i a* /lij 



RICHMOND 

Chevron 
ignored 
risk, say 
workers 

They warned of 
corrosion after '11 
fire, papers show 

By Jaxon Van Derbeken 

i m Iin ked i orrosioii. ih< - 
niapected culpril in the Au- 
gust blase thai destroyed perl 

ol ' ln-\ mtii KiihniMiiii refin- 

i-r\. w.is rrs(>msihle fur ;moth 

er fin ..t "in- plant last \> at 
thai prompted wofkers to 

■ <.ii.pl.iin t0 n gul.iIorN t li.il (In- 

coropan) wjs Ignoring die 
i>ii. M< in, according i" it itt 
tnapectloti documentB ob* 

t.nind i»> i In- 1 bronicie 

I in st.ii. hiMMon of Occu- 
pational Safety and Health 
Enapei tor who Lnveatteated the 

.ill. -i i h tober -<'ii lire — 
w hich « Rxurred duriiiK a 
&chrduled niainleiiJiH-e s.hut- 
down .if id was qufc k|| ex- 

ttagulshcd dfnunu-nii ■! 

itiOfJS (rum tw<> WOfksfl 
thai itirruniiiin was a(ta.kinR 

. 'imn and thai i npJoj 

»•*-». could !»*" a* ^^k 

Were afraid rwnrthlng Is 

KoiiiK tu fall thmugh dir- 
cracltai," one \M»ri.« r idd < -il 

■ >>ll \ ssletj LOSpSI tOI «'arla 

rrl^ivhoivii tuvestlgailng 

the fire in funuce piping at 

Chevron continue* on An 

INSIDE 




The Herb Caen gang 

M> Kradna iharr Ihnr sIiiiiiiik 
monvnU in Mr San Kranriscua 
column Dalfbook. 16 



Prints & Multiples 

Tuesday October 2.», 10«ra 



Bonhams 



|M»»~>> 




Ax Hard OictMnaorn 
G'<*n. I 

cota» earhng and aquniiil 
J.00000 W0.000 

hnnhami com/printa 



Sunday, October 14, 2012 




an3ftanci?co Cljronicte 



SUNDAY PROFILE 

Brewster Kahle 

His mission 
— preserve 
our fleeting 
digital past 

By Benny Evangelista 

Brewster Kahle was a 19- 
year-old computer science 
student at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology when a 
friend posed a simple, yet 
life-changing question: "What 
can you do with your life that 
is worthwhile?" 

Kahle came up with two 
answers. The first, developing 
a microchip to ensure the pri- 
vacy of telephone conversa- 
tions, didn't pan out. But 32 
years later, Kahle is still happi- 
ly pursuing his second big idea 
— to create the digital- age 
version of the Great Library of 
Alexandria. 

His Internet Archive — 
fittingly based in an old Rich- 
mond District church that 
architecturally harks back to 
the ancient Egyptian library — 
is building a rich repository of 
modern digital culture. It's 
best known for the online 
Wayback Machine, which 
provides a searchable online 
museum of the Internet, ar- 
chiving more than 150 billion 
Web pages that have appeared 
since 1996. The nonprofit ar- 
chive stretches beyond the 

Kahle continues on A14 




Sunday, October 14, 2012 



an3franci£co Cbtonicte 



SUNDAY PROFILE 

.Brewster Kahle 

His mission 
— preserve 
our fleeting 
digital past 

By Benny Evangelista 

Brewster Kahle was a 19- 
year-old computer science 
student at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology when a 
friend posed a simple, yet 
life-changing question: "What 
can you do with your life that 
is worthwhile?" 

Kahle came up with two 
answers. The first, developing 
a microchip to ensure the pri- 
vacy of telephone conversa- 
tions, didn't pan out. But 32 
years later, Kahle is still happi- 
ly pursuing his second big idea 
— to create the digital- age 
version of the Great Library of 
Alexandria. 

His Internet Archive — 
fittingly based in an old Rich- 
mond District church that 
architecturally harks back to 
the ancient Egyptian library — 
is building a rich repository of 
modern digital culture. It's 
best known for the online 
Wayback Machine, which 
provides a searchable online 
museum of the Internet, ar- 
chiving more than 150 billion 
Web pages that have appeared 
since 1996. The nonprofit ar- 
chive stretches beyond the 

Kahle continues on A14 



A14 ! Sunday. October 14, 2011 I San Francisco Chronicu. ami SFQATI !.( om iiarta* 



FROM THE COVER 



Archiving our fleeting online history 



Kahle front page Ai 

(htefliet It has recorded 
550,000 television news broad- 
easts, Including reports from 
around the world during the 
week of the 2001 terrorist 
attacks, and stores 200,000 
digitized books. 

The nearly 10 petabytes — 
equivalent to about 10 billion 
books — of material in the 
archive also has 900,000 audio 
files, including 9,000 fan-made 
recordings of Grateful Dead 
concerts. Volunteers are even 
converting old home movies 
and stock footage of post - 
World War II San Francisco 
into digital form. 

It's a mind-boggling, and 
constantly growing, amount of 
digital data, and it's all avail- 
able for free, as the site's wel- 
come says, to "researchers, 
historians, scholars, and the 
general public." With 50 times 
as much data expected to be 
produced over the next de- 
cade, it will be an ever-in- 
creasing challenge to capture, 
catalog and store it. 

But at a time when what's 
brand new can almost in- 
stantly become passe, Kahle 
believes it's more important 
than ever to remember our 
yesterdays. 

"Let's not throw out the old, 
even though we're going head- 
long into trying to invent some 
new future," he said. "And, in 
fact, the older things inform 
what we do." 

'Optimist and Utopian' 

The archive's mission of 
creating "universal access to 
all knowledge" would appear 
to be a Sisyphean task at best, 
as well as a venture that's not 
going to bring the 51-year-old 
entrepreneur and Internet 
pioneer the kind of money that 
would make a Mark Zucker- 
berg envious. 

But Kahle isn't motivated by 
the pursuit of money — he 
says he already has "plenty of 
that" from previous ventures, 
including Alexa Internet, a 
Web information company 
that Amazon.com bought for a 
reported S250 million in 1999. 

He's also earned plenty of 
accolades — in April, he was 
inducted into the Internet Hall 
of Fame, an online-only hall 
established by the Internet 
Society of Reston, Va. He was 
part of an inaugural class that 
included tech luminaries Vint 
Cerf, Robert Kahn and Charles 
Herzfeld. 

His real reward, he says, is 
creating a place for research- 
ers — and anyone else with a 
curious mind and a thirst for 
knowledge — to have unfet- 
tered access to the fleeting 
cultural artifacts of the In- 
ternet age. The "optimist and 
Utopian" in him believes his 
"Library of Alexandria, Ver- 
sion 2" ultimately will make 
the world a better place. 

"It's really meant to be a 
resource where you can come 
up with your own ideas," he 
said. "We want people to think 
deeper and then create new 
things that are worthy of put- 
ting in the library." 

Computerized church 

Kahle, a tall, balding, slight- 
ly rumpled-looking fellow, has 
been married for 20 years. His 
wife, Mary Austin, is co- 
founder of the San Francisco 
Center for the Book, a strictly 
analog venture that teaches 
classic bookbinding and let- 
terpress techniques. They live 
near the archive in the Presi- 
dio and have two sons, Caslon, 
18, (named for the Caslon 
typeface) and Logan, 15. 

As he talks about his work 
and his staff, Kahle comes 
across as a proud paternal 
figure. But as he begins a tour 
of the archive — the former 
Fourth Church of Christ, Sci- 
entist, a neoclassic building 
with Greek columns on Fun- 
ston Avenue — he's more like 
a kid showing off a new toy. 
With wide eyes and a slight 
giggle, Kahle describes how, 
since locating there in 2009, 
archive workers outfitted old 
storage areas and other rooms 
with racks of ultramodern, 
custom-designed computer 
servers. 

There are even servers in- 
stalled in the back of the old 
church's main hall, their con- 




Photos by Michael Short / Special to The Chronicle 

Brewster Kahle operates the Internet Archive in a former Christian Science church In San Francisco's Richmond District. 

Internet Archive by the numbers 

2 million 

Unique visitors per day. 

250 

Rank among most popular websites. 

10 

Petabytes of material archived (one petabyte 
equals 1 million gigabytes). 

350,000 

TV news broadcasts archived. 

2 million to 2.5 million 

Digital copies of books. 

100,000 

Music concerts archived. 

150 

Employees. 




Kahle points out servers during a tour of his offices. The Internet Archive is 
compiling data that are available to researchers in digital form. 



Source Internet Archive 



stant whir replacing the 
sounds of worship. Somehow, 
the servers still fit naturally 
with the old church pews, 
which these days are filled 
with rows of Kahle's own Ter- 
racotta Army — half-size clay 
statues that are a sort of ar- 
chive themselves, representa- 
tions of employees who have 
worked there for three years 
or more. 

Kahle — who on most week- 
ends can be found on the bay 
in his sailboat — said the ar- 
chive's unique home, built in 
1923, anchors his personal and 
professional life. 

"All of this comes from a 
perspective, which is why we 
have a Greek place with 
pillars," he said. "It's all about 
trying to help people under- 
stand what it is we're trying to 
do, and have ourselves be 
reminded. ... It's because we're 
supposed to be doing the pub- 
lic good." 

Visionary geek 

Kahle is a computer geek 
who can go "nerd-to-nerd with 
anybody," but he is still able to 
articulate his vision to a non- 
tech-savvy crowd, said Cindy 
Cohn, legal director for the 
Electronic Frontier Founda- 
tion. Kahle is on the San Fran- 
cisco digital rights advocacy 
organization's board of direc- 
tors. 

"That's what makes him so 
inspiring," Cohn said. "Brew- 
ster is one of the first people 
I've met in this area who had 
that whole package together. 
He's very serious about what 
he's doing, but he's kind of 
childlike in his enthusiasm, 
which is infectious." 

Indeed, Kahle may have the 
perfect virtual pulpit for his 
efforts. "He has almost evan- 
gelistic zeal for promoting 
better access to information to 
take advantage of the opportu- 
nities that are out there," said 
Pamela Samuelson, a profes- 
sor at UC Berkeley School of 
Law. 

Samuelson, a renowned 
pioneer in digital copyright 
law. met Kahle about 20 years 
ago. 

"If anything, he's become 



more of a visionary and more 
of an evangelist," she said. "He 
hasn't slowed down at all. I 
can imagine Brewster Kahle 
when he's 85, still out there 
saying, 'Oh, we can do this, we 
can do this.' " 

He's also not been afraid to 
take on big companies or the 
federal government. Kahle, the 
Electronic Frontier Foundation 
and the American Civil Liber- 
ties Union fought a 2007 at- 
tempt by the FBI to obtain 
personal information about an 
Internet Archive user, arguing 
that it was unconstitutional. 
The FBI later withdrew the 
request. 

He also has opposed Goo- 
gle's controversial project to 
create its own collection of 
digital books. Although Goo- 
gle and the Association of 
American Publishers this 
month settled their 7-year-old 
copyright dispute over the 
project, which already in- 
cludes 20 million scanned 
books, Kahle still objects to the 
restrictions Google places on 
access to many of the books it 
has digitized. 

"I come from the Internet 
generation, and the things 
we've seen work have not been 
these closed, walled gardens," 
Kahle said. "And what we're 
really about is having no cen- 
tralized points of control. We 
want lots of winners. We want 
lots of publishers to win. We 
want lots of libraries to win." 

Always searching 

Kahle was born in New 
Jersey, grew up in New York 
and studied artificial intelli- 
gence at Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, where 
he was challenged to think 
about what he really wanted to 
do. While still in school, he 
tried to develop a chip that 
could encrypt telephone con- 
versations, but "couldn't figure 
out how to do it cheaply 
enough to help the everyday 
person," he said. After gradu- 
ating in 1982, he helped start a 
company called Thinking 
Machines, designing chips for 
supercomputers that could 
"search everything," he said. 
His work led to the devel- 



| opment in 1989 of the Wide 
Area Information Server, or 
i WAIS, the first system that 
I enabled connecting to and 
1 searching databases through 
the Internet. 

In 1992, he co-founded 
WAIS Inc., which helped tra- 
ditional print publishers get 
on the Internet. Kahle helped 
set up an early version of the 
Gate, which is now SFGate. 
com, The Chronicle's website. 

America Online bought 
WAIS in 1995 for S13 million. 
In 1996, Kahle co-founded 
Ale.xa Internet, a Web re- 
search and information com- 
pany still based in San Fran- 
cisco's Presidio. The name is 
derived from the Library of 
Alexandria. 

Archiving ephemera 

At the same time, Kahle 
co-founded the Internet Ar- 
chive, and used Alexa In- 
ternet's Web-crawling tech- 
nology to feed the catalog of 
sites in the Wayback Machine, 
a play on the name of a time 
machine used by the old TV 
cartoon character Mr. Peabody. 

When Amazon bought Al- 
exa Internet, Chief Executive 
Officer Jeff Bezos agreed to 
continue donating data to the 
Wayback Machine. Kahle 
stayed with Alexa for three 
years after the sale before 
moving full time to the In- 
ternet Archive. 

Kahle calls TV news just as 
ephemeral as websites, yet it is 
just as "pervasive and persua- 
sive" in its influence on mod- 
ern life, from culture to poli- 
tics. The archive's latest proj- 
ect, TV News Search & Bor- 
row, attempts to preserve 
those shows for future genera- 
tions. 

The project began Sept. 17 
with a collection of 350,000 
news programs digitally re- 
corded during the last three 
years from domestic TV net- 
works and stations in San 
Francisco and Washington. It 
also includes a section devoted 
to news broadcasts about 9/tl 
from around the world. The 
free service can be searched 
online by keywords, so some- 
one researching political de- 



bates, for example, can search 
for clips on "Obamacare" or 
"Big Bird." (If an entire pro- 
gram is needed, it's loaned out 
on DVD-ROM to observe 
copyright restrictions.) 

The service is about foster- 
ing better "media literacy." 
Kahle said. "It's meant to make 
television news researchable, 
basically like newspapers have 
always been." 

Next big idea 

The big idea Kahle con- 
ceived more than 30 years ago 
has recently inspired another. 

The Internet Archive Feder- 
al Credit Union is scheduled to 
start operating this year and 
fully open next year. Based in 
New Brunswick, N.J., the 
home of Rutgers University, it 
will serve about 135.000 main- 
ly low-income residents. The 
credit union, which was grant- 
ed a charter in August, is par- 
tially funded by the Kahle/ 
Austin Foundation, a nonprof- 
it organization formed by 
Kahle and his wife. 

Kahle says he was moved to 
do something after talking to 
Internet Archive employees 
who scan books into digital 
form about how they struggle 
to meet high Bay Area rents 
every month. One of the credit 
union's aims will be to help 
develop housing that employ- 
ees of nonprofits like his can 
afford. 

"So how do we get around 
this? I don't know the answer 
completely, but we're going to 
try some things," he said. "The 
first thing we needed was a 
bank that would be up for 
trying to help people more 
than the banks are doing these 
days, so we thought, 'OK, let's 
start a credit union.' " 

Kahle is confident that it, 
like the archive, will be a 
worthwhile venture. Maybe 
even life-changing for some. 
His ambition for it is simple, 
and familiar: 

"We'll do as much good as 
we can with it." 



Benny Evangelista is a San 
Francisco Chronicle staff writer. 
Email: bevangelista@ 
sfchronicle.com 



TECHNOLOGY B4 I CFO JOURNAL B13 I WEATHER B16 



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Tuesday, September 18, 2012 I Bl 



GE Feels Its Own Cuts 

As Employees Foot Bigger Share of Health Bills, Use of Medical Imaging Declines 



K«K>If UaDWDBfl 



General Electric Co.'* $18 bil- 
lion health-care business is being 
forced to navigate a slowdown in 
medical Imaging -one that in 
some ways lias been aggravated 
by GE Itself. 

GE put Its 85,000 U.S. white- 
collar workers on a high-deduct- 
ible health plan in an effort to 
stem the growth of its U.S. 
health bills, which are now run- 
ning $2.5 billion a year. In the 
first two years after thf plan 
went into effect, use of advanced 
ImaginK including MRLs and CT 
scam has dropped by as much as 



a quarter, as covered employees' 
overall use of health services 
fell, according to the company. 

That is good news for GE 
proper, which last year expanded 
the plan to include its 45,000 
hourly and union workers. But it 
is bad news for GE's health-care 
business, which is one of the 
world's biggest makers of MR! 
machines and CT scanners. 

Proposals to move employees 
to health plans that make em- 
ployees pay more out of pocket 
were hotly debated within GE, 
people familiar with the matter 
said. Many GE divisions were ea- 
ger to control their medical 



costs, but there were concerns 
about the impact on sales. 

GE isn't alone. A number of 
other giant employers, including 
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. and 
Chrysler Group LLC, are adopt- 
ing high-deductible health plans, 
pushing down the use of imaging 
by privately insured Americans. 

Meanwhile, Medicare has been 
cutting reimbursement rates for 
medical imaging services. New 
data out this week show imaging 
use among Medicare beneficia- 
ries fell 1% in 2011, extending a 
two-year slide, according to 
Medical Imaging & Technology 
Alliance, an industry group. 



To adjust, GE Healthcare is 
trying to expand businesses with 
better growth prospects like ul- 
trasound, diagnostics and a med- 
ical-device unit that sells every- 
thing from incubators to blood- 
pressure monitors. It is also 
focusing on emerging markets, 
where growth is stronger but 
where hospitals need less com- 
plex—and cheaper— machines. 

The U.S. radiology industry 
clocked double-digit growth for 
decades. Those gains produced a 
wave of sales for machine mak- 
ers like GE, Siemens AG and 
Royal Philips Electronics NV. 
Please turn to the next page 



The Plus -Size MRI Machine 



Bv Cmmontr.* Wuvm 



David Washington has en- 
countered a hurdle to getting 'he 
medical treatment he needs to 
return to work as a mechanic: 
He can't find an imaging device 
large enough to accommodate 
his o:io pounds. 

The 57-year-old Mr. Washing- 
ton hurl his back at work last 
year, foul said surgeons won't 
operate without a magnetic res- 
onance irn.iginK, or MRI, scan to 
evaluate Ins injury. 

I Next In Tech 

"I've Im'cii looking fbf an MRI 
for a year," he said, a saga that 
fi i . mi luded fruitless phone 
call* tit initytiriM iitutfimvnt nuik 
vtn nuch ni Hiemtfnm At} find 

General Electric Co., and a two- 
hour trip from his home in 
Whenton, Md., to a Virginia 
clinic only to find he WH too 
large for their equipment. 

ini i ■ii:.' companies see Mr. 
W.i-.li i noun's problem as on 
emerging businevs opportunity— 
js well as a tryiriK engineering 
challenge. 

As the percentage 0( obese 
Americans continues to rise, 
In, |nt,«i , dem.md larger, more 
powerful imaging machines that 
(iin Ill any patient and penetrate 
greater musses ot tissue. Be 
i in ii body hi can disrupt the 
quality of images, companies 
also are developing software 
lh.it i. m product' erisper scans 

without upptni ihe dotal <>t po 

Initially harmful radiation. 

The larger scanner-, are part 
Of a K.rowinx trend in medical 
equipment, which include longer 
needles ,ind sturdier beds to at 

turn date the needs ot obese 

patients 

"The U.S. is Ihe biggest mar- 
ket ti»i us, so every product we 
huilil has the obese Aunt ic. in 
p.ttirii! in inirid,' s.iul llerntl 
Montlg. COW executive ot Sie- 



Higher obesity rates are driving medical equipment manufacturers to 



More than one-fourth of the 
U.S. population Is now 
considered obese_ 

U.S. OBESITY RATE 



SIEMENS 





ULTERIOR MOTIVES: Many of the early campers outside Apple's store 
on New York's Fifth Avenue Monday were hoping to take advantage of 
the media attention surrounding the new iPhone 5 to promote a 
product or business. The device isn't due to hit stores until Friday. B4 



Why Wi-Fi Is 
Often So Slow 



s«uk«i CtK. Sumfmtphotoiipee 



mens AG's imaging division, 
which makes computed tomogru 
phy, or CT, scanners to support 
patients well over GOO pounds. 
"It more or less has turned into 
u design requirement." 



U.S. imaging leader General 
Electric, Dutch giant Philips 
Electronics N.V., and other com- 
panies have also introduced, in 
recent years, larger and larger 
machines for CT scanning, mag- 



netic resonance imaging and 
other devices. 

Twenty-eight percent of 

Americans are now obese, up 

from less than 20% of all Ameri- 

Please turn to the next page 



By Shauni Ramachandran 

A number of Internet service 
providers, including Comcast 
Corp. and Verizon Communica- 
tions Inc., have recently upped 
the maximum speeds of broad- 
band they offer residential cus- 
tomers to as much as 305 mega- 
bits per second. 

And Google Inc. is testing a 
high-speed network in Kansas 
City that would offer a speed of 
one gigabit— equal to 1,000 
megabits— per second, which the 
company boasts would allow a 
person to download a season of 
"30 Rock" in 30 seconds. 

But the widespread use of 
home Wi-Fi networks could un- 
dercut these efforts. While such 
networks give people a wireless 
connection to the Web, they sig- 
nificantly reduce the speed avail- 
able. 

Most customers get little 
more than 50% of the capacity 
promised by their Wi-Fi routers, 
says Dr. Alex Hills, a professor of 
electrical and computer engi- 
neering at Carnegie Mellon Uni- 
versity who built the first big 
Wi-Fi network. That speed is fur- 
ther slowed if multiple people 
try to use a network, he says. 

When Alex Boote moved into 
a house this summer with four 
friends and 26 Internet-con- 
nected devices, he quickly dis- 
covered that sharing Wi-Fi could 
be more difficult than sharing 



living space. 

If Mr. Boote, a 23-year-old re- 
search assistant in the Washing- 
ton, D.C. area, connected his TV 
to the router with a cord, he 
could surf the Web fast enough 
to stream all the Netflix Inc. pro- 
grams he wanted. 

When he instead used his 
home Wi-Fi network, it was a 
different story. With so many 
others on the network, a "Game 
of Thrones" episode streamed 
from the Web would frequently 
sputter and stop. 

"The picture would be pretty 
pixilated and loading times were 
minutes instead of the seconds 
that you get when you plug it 
right into" the router, Mr. Boote 
said. 

When Internet service provid- 
ers "talk about these gig-per-sec- 
ond speeds, it's more for market- 
ing purposes," says Dr. Paul Liao, 
the former chief executive of Ca- 
bleLabs, a nonprofit technologi- 
cal research consortium of cable 
operators. "Nobody probably can 
get a gigabit per second. ..unless 
you connect directly to the 
router or the modem." 

Google concedes that its Wi-Fi 
will be much slower than its 
wired connection. Comcast, Veri- 
zon and AT&T Inc. say the 
speeds they advertise are for 
wired connections and acknowl- 
edge that a number of factors af- 
fect Wi-Fi speeds. These include 
Please turn topageB4 



Let's Go to the Videotape: 
Nonprofit Offers News Clips 



By Qtomn A Kowur 
Asm km ii M t< > i 



For those wtvo envy Jon Slew- 
art's dhihtv 1" have TV news 
clips .it Ins Imgeitlpv I new 111 
tetnet library service may Ik- just 

the Hum.: 

On MojuU) i San Pnmdaco 

iHnipioht called the Internet Ar- 
eblva launched .« I «rvfci 

th.H will let people Km through 
.mimes ol I'U'iv national news 

m in the us rhe 
called IV News Vaich A Borrow. 
uucrlptJ produced for 



closed captioning, designed for 
the deal, lo allow anyone to 
search its archives, pull up video 
und link to 30- second clips 

Kor TV news companies, many 
of which .ire still trying to figure 
out how t>< tnaka money online. 
the question is whether they will 
see the service as a long needed 
archive- or a trampling on their 
intellectual property rights 

In preparation lor launch of 
the service, Internet Archive has 
been recording a wide swath ot 
news programming across some 
20 networks for at least the post 




A KTMftthot of the v*o>o ntw web function at the kittmtt Archive. 



three years, and others for as 
long as 10 years. 

The idea, said Internet Ar- 
chive founder Brewster Kahle, is 
to "let 1.000 Jon Stewarts 
bloom," Like ihe comedian who 
hosts The Daily Show," which Is 
known for skewering clips from 
news shows, ordinary people 
should be able to "compare and 
Contrast content in a way that 
we've been able to do for the 
print press for u long time, and 
never been able to do until now 
OH IV Bald Mr. Kahle. 

I'nnt news companies for 
years battled with Google Inc. 
over excerpting their content for 
its news aggregation site. And 
TV content owners have sued to 
have their content taken down 
from sites that archive clips or 
broadcast it live without mdivid 
ual licensees, 

The Internet Archive doesn't 
have licenses, but Mr. Kahle said 
it has reached out to all the 
broadcast news departments to 
dJtCUSS potential partnerships. 
ABC News and NBC News con- 
finned they hive been contacted 
by the Internet Archive, but de- 
I clmed to comment further, citing 
4 ongoing talks. CBS News con 
>* finned it bad btfJB contacted, but 
I declined to comment. CNN de- 
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© 2012 Dow Jones & Company. All Rights Reserved. * * * * THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. Tuesday, September 18, 2012 I Bl 




Let's Go to the Videotape: 
Nonprofit Offers News Clips 



By Geoffrey A. Fowler 
And Keach Hagey 

For those who envy Jon Stew- 
art's ability to have TV news 
clips at his fingertips, a new In- 
ternet library service may be just 
the thing. 

On Monday, a San Francisco 
nonprofit called the Internet Ar- 
chive launched a free service 
that will let people sort through 
archives of every national news 
program in the U.S. The service, 
called TV News Search & Borrow, 
uses transcripts produced for 



closed captioning, designed for 
the deaf, to allow anyone to 
search its archives, pull up video 
and link to 30-second clips. 

For TV news companies, many 
of which are still trying to figure 
out how to make money online, 
the question is whether they will 
see the service as a long-needed 
archive— or a trampling on their 
intellectual property rights. 

In preparation for launch of 
the service, Internet Archive has 
been recording a wide swath of 
news programming across some 
20 networks for at least the past 




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A screenshot of the video news search function at the Internet Archive. 



three years, and others for as 
long as 10 years. 

The idea, said Internet Ar- 
chive founder Brewster Kahle, is 
to "let 1,000 Jon Stewarts 
bloom." Like the comedian who 
hosts "The Daily Show," which is 
known for skewering clips from 
news shows, ordinary people 
should be able to "compare and 
contrast content in a way that 
we've been able to do for the 
print press for a long time, and 
never been able to do until now 
on TV," said Mr. Kahle. 

Print news companies for 
years battled with Google Inc. 
over excerpting their content for 
its news aggregation site. And 
TV content owners have sued to 
have their content taken down 
from sites that archive clips or 
broadcast it live without individ- 
ual licensees. 

The Internet Archive doesn't 
have licenses, but Mr. Kahle said 
it has reached out to all the 
broadcast news departments to 
discuss potential partnerships. 

ABC News and NBC News con- 
firmed they have been contacted 

by the Internet Archive, but de- 
| clined to comment further, citing 
J ongoing talks. CBS News con- 
| firmed it had been contacted, but 

1 declined to comment. CNN de- 

Please turn to page B4 




THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. 



A NET5 CORPORATION COMPANY 

DOWJQNES 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 - VOL. CCLX NO. 66 



WSJ.com 



• •** $2.00 



HE WALL STREET JOURN 



A NEWS CoWtMLATION COMMNY 



DO 



WJQNES 



* * * * 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 - VOL. CCLX NO. 66 



WSJ.com 




Let's Go to the Videotape: 
Nonprofit Offers News Clips 



By Geoffrey A. Fowler 
And Keach Hagey 

For those who envy Jon Stew- 
art's ability to have TV news 
clips at his fingertips, a new In- 
ternet library service may be just 
the thing. 

On Monday, a San Francisco 
nonprofit called the Internet Ar- 
chive launched a free service 
that will let people sort through 
archives of every national news 
program in the U.S. The service, 
called TV News Search & Borrow, 
uses transcripts produced for 



closed captioning, designed for 
the deaf, to allow anyone to 
search its archives, pull up video 
and link to 30-second clips. 

For TV news companies, many 
of which are still trying to figure 
out how to make money online, 
the question is whether they will 
see the service as a long-needed 
archive— or a trampling on their 
intellectual property rights. 

In preparation for launch of 
the service, Internet Archive has 
been recording a wide swath of 
news programming across some 
20 networks for at least the past 




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A screenshot of the video news search function at the Internet Archive. 



three years, and others for as 
long as 10 years. 

The idea, said Internet Ar- 
chive founder Brewster Kahle, is 
to "let 1,000 Jon Stewarts 
bloom." Like the comedian who 
hosts "The Daily Show," which is 
known for skewering clips from 
news shows, ordinary people 
should be able to "compare and 
contrast content in a way that 
we've been able to do for the 
print press for a long time, and 
never been able to do until now 
on TV," said Mr. Kahle. 

Print news companies for 
years battled with Google Inc. 
over excerpting their content for 
its news aggregation site. And 
TV content owners have sued to 
have their content taken down 
from sites that archive clips or 
broadcast it live without individ- 
ual licensees. 

The Internet Archive doesn't 
have licenses, but Mr. Kahle said 
it has reached out to all the 
broadcast news departments to 
discuss potential partnerships. 
ABC News and NBC News con- 
firmed they have been contacted 
n by the Internet Archive, but de- 
| clined to comment further, citing 
ongoing talks. CBS News con- 
| firmed it had been contacted, but 
1 declined to comment. CNN de- 
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with or without Occupy Wall Street. 
The Wall Street banks themselves 
hardly felt the pinch of the protesters, 
beyond considering them a nuisance 
and an additional security cost. Despite 
campaigns for customers to move 

Continued on Page 9 



A ill I Wk/V iivi-** 



o ~ w o~- 



at this point," one backer wrote on Kickstarter. 

Crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter and IndieGogo are 
letting designers and other creative people connect with 



of a future reward. 

Those who give a few dollars to 
Continued on Page 2 



m 



• 



By BILL CARTER 

Inspired by a pillar of antiquity, the 
Library of Alexandria, Brewster Kahle 
has a grand vision for the Internet Ar- 
chive, the giant aggregator and digitizer 
of data, which he founded and leads. 

"We want to collect all the books, mu- 
sic and video that has ever been pro- 




EDWARD M. PIO RODA/CNN 



John King of CNN. Internet Archive 
has recorded 20 news channels. 



duced by humans," Mr. Kahle said. 

As of Tuesday, the archive's online 
collection will include every morsel of 
news produced in the last three years 
by 20 different channels, encompassing 
more than 1,000 news series that have 
generated more than 350,000 separate 
programs devoted to news. 

The latest ambitious effort by the ar- 
chive, which has already digitized mil- 
lions of books and tried to collect every- 
thing published on every Web page for 
the last 15 years (that adds up to more 
than 150 billion Web pages), is intended 
not only for researchers, Mr. Kahle said, 
but also for average citizens who make 
up some of the site's estimated two mil- 
lion visitors each day. "The focus is to 
help the American voter to better be 
able to examine candidates and issues," 
Mr. Kahle said. "If you want to know ex- 
actly what Mitt Romney said about 
health care in 2009, you'll be able to find 



it." 



Web Site 



Of course, if you want to discredit or 
satirize a politician based on a clip 
showing some reversal of a position, 
that will be made easier as well. Or, as 
Mr. Kahle put it, "Let a thousand Jon 
Stewarts bloom." 

Many conventional news outlets will 
be available, including CNN, Fox News, 
NBC News, PBS, and every purveyor of 
eyewitness news on local television sta- 
tions. And Mr. Stewart's program, "The 
Daily Show" is one of those 1,000 series 
that is part of the new news archive. 

"Absolutely," Mr. Kahle said. "We 
think of it as news." 

The Internet Archive has been qui- 
etly recording the news material from 
all these outlets, which means, Mr. Kah- 
le said, capturing not only every edition 
of "60 Minutes" on CBS but also every 
minute of every day on CNN. 

All of this will be available, free, to 
those willing to dive into the archive 
Continued on Page 2 




NAD1224 Cwerage is underwritti 
American Famiy Life Assurance Compa 



■■■■■■■■■■ 









?*?r:.y<f 






•* « 










S.&R500 1,461.19 * 4.58 

Dow industrials 13,553.10 * 40.27 

Nasdaq composite 3,178.67 * 5.28 

10-yr. Treasury yield 1.84% * 0.03 

The euro $1.3106 * 0.0012 



Itineraries 

Campus Retreats 

Corporate conferences 
make use of vacation-idled 
facilities at colleges. 6 




Greeks stop work to step up pro- 
tests of austerity measures. 

Volatile trading stuns oil markets 
and drives energy shares down. 



SportsTuesday 

Pages Bll-15 

Starting Anew 

Andy Pettitte returns 
Tuesday for the Yanks. 15 




Business Day 



SI)c ?CcUr Jlork Suites 



Y 



Bl 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 



Occupy 
Wall Street: 

A Frenzy 
That Fizzled 



it will be an asterisk In the history 

nu-ntion.it all. 

Occupy 
Wall iy in 

Zuccotti Park in I inhattan. ["he 

the 
irn, 

\ all 



ANDREW 
ROSS SORKIN 

DEALBOOH 



Win! 






Shell Delays Arctic Oil Drilling Until 2013 



By CLIFFORD KRAUSS 

HOUSTON — With the prospect of 
rich new oil fields in tantalizing reach. 
Shell Oil announced on Monday that it 
lorced to put off completing wells 
in the Alaskan Arctic for another year 
after a spill containment dome was 
damaged during a testing accident. 

While the company will perform pre- 
liminary work this year on several 
wells in the region, it will not be able to 
drill for oil until it the 

S4.5 bill 

wh 

ell's 
nent equi 



ick in Shell's six-year, 
to drill off the coast of 
ened environmental 
I the drilling program 




The Arctic Chal- 
lenger, a barge 
that would cap- 
ture spilled oil, in 
August. Equip- 
ment on the barge 
malfunctioned on 
Saturday during 
testing. 



hc«alo vu *sam*Tl> MM 



n trt 



Arctic wa- 



tinue working with the company to 
open the Arctic for drilling next year. 

Shell expected to receive all the nec- 
essary r drill up to five wells 
summer and fall, but equipment 



call that we are better off not drilling in 
hydrocarbons this year." 

It was the third year in a row that 
Royal Dutch Shell, the parent company, 
was frustrated in one of its most am- 



NEWS ANALYSIS 

Trade Case 

May Produce 

Few Results 

By KEITH BRADSHKK 

BEIJING — President Obama's trade 
case ag na on cars and auto 

parts will ha '■ amediate impact 

on jobs and companies in the United 
States, but it is one of the few legal op- 
tions available to the United States as 
China's auto industry faces overcapaci- 
ty problems and looks overseas to in- 
crease sales. 

In filing the case on Monday with the 
World Trade Organization, Mr. Obama 
is making a political gesture to Mid- 
western states coping with the pressure 
that Chinese exports are placing on the 
Amencan auto industry. But actual ef- 
» be delayed and I; 





people who have preordered a 
watch that doesn't yet exist." 

Mr. Migicovsky hired someone 
to help manage his in-box — 
nearly 9,000 people have e-mailed 
him about the project — and to 
post updates. He originally hoped 
to start shipping the watches in 
September, a date that he has 
had to push back, although he de- 
clined to say by how much. 

A study by Ethan Mollick, a 
professor of management at the 
Wharton School of the University 



kept informed. 

"The honeymoon period that 
we are experiencing around 
crowdfunding is beginning to 
come to a close," said Wil Schroe- 
ter, co-founder and chief execu- 
tive of Fundable, a company that 
is applying crowdfunding to the 
venture capital process. "People 
realize there is real risk involved 
in investing in anything early- 
stage, whether it's an idea, a 
charity or a product, and they're 
starting to understand they are- 



pledged. Sometimes project cre- 
ators can be overwhelmed by the 
success of a crowdfunding cam- 
paign. 

The four college students be- 
hind Diaspora, a project that 
aimed to build an open alterna- 
tive to Facebook, began with the 
modest goal of $10,000. They 
raised $200,000 from around 6,500 
people. But after three years, 
they still did not have a version to 
release publicly and turned the 
code over to anyone who might 



the software. 

"We thought this would be a 
summer project," Mr. Salzberg 
said. "We wanted to make it be- 
cause it was something we be- 
lieved in, but we got roped into 
maintaining a relationship with a 
lot of people. We weren't pre- 
pared to have to deal with that." 

The hardest part, he said, was 
the perception they had squan- 
dered the money. "It sounds like 
a lot of money, and people were 
like, 'Where did it go?' But the re- 



really wanted to see if I could 
make this thing work," said Mr. 
Geis, 41, who works in construc- 
tion in Draper, Utah. "But every- 
thing was so much more difficult 
than I'd anticipated." 

Mr. Geis found that he had 
drastically underestimated his 
manufacturing cost and the time 
it would take to make the stylus. 
He canceled his fund-raising, 
consulted designers and manu- 
facturers, and put it back up a 
few months later. He wound up 



he was thrilled that he was able 
to create "a business out of thin 
air" through Kickstarter. 

"When you're in the trenches, 
it's so incredibly stressful," he 
said. "But I think we've done 
well." 

The company is close to ship- 
ping the last of its 19,000 preor- 
dered docks, Mr. Hopkins said. 

"It's definitely been a huge net 
positive," he said. "At least, it will 
be after I take a weeklong vaca- 
tion." 



All the TV News Since 2009, at One Site 



From First Business Page 

starting Tuesday. Mr. Kahle said 
the method for the search for in- 
formation would be the closed- 
captioned words that have ac- 
companied the news programs. 
The user simply plugs in the 
words of the search, along with 
some kind of time frame, and 
matches of news clips will ap- 
peal. 

Mr. Kahle predicted there 
would often be hundreds of 
matches, but he said l lie system 
hail an Interface thai would make 
it easy to browse quickly through 
30-second clips in search of the 
right one. if a researcher wants a 
copy ot the entire program, a 
DVD will he sent on loan. 

the inspiration ot the Library 

ol Alexandria, the archive of the 
knowledge In ancient world in 
Egypt, was not frivolous. Mr. 
Kahle said that early effort to as 

semble the collected works ot ctv 

ili.wlion was in his mind when he 
i omened the idea lo nse the al 

most Infinite capacity ol the Web 

to pursue the modem equivalent. 
"YOU could turn all the books 

m the Library ot Co Into a 



stack of disks that would fit in 
one shopping cart in Best Buy," 
Mr. Kahle said. He estimates that 
the Internet Archive now con- 
tains about 9,000 terabytes of 
data; by contrast, the digital col- 
lection of the Library of Congress 
is a little more than 300 terabytes, 
according to an estimate earlier 



Collecting 350 ,000 
separate programs 
devoted to news. 



this year. 

Mr. Kahle calls himself a tech- 
nologist and says he moved to the 
archive project after previously 

founding and soiling ott two data- 
mining companies, one to AOL, 
the other to Amazon. 

The television news project, 
like his other archive projects, is 

financed mainly through outside 

us, though Mr. Kahle did put 
up some ot his own money to 
■tart He said grants from U> 
tional Archives, the I ibrary of 



Congress and other government 
agencies and foundations made 
up the bulk of the financing for 
the project. He set the annual 
budget at $12 million, and said 
about 150 people were working 
on the project. 

The act of copying all this news 
material is protected under a fed- 
eral copyright agreement signed 
in 1976. That was in reaction to a 
challenge to a news assembly 
project started by Vanderbilt 
University in 1968. 

The archive has no intention of 
replacing or competing with the 
Web outlets owned by the news 
organizations. Mr. Kahle said 
new material would not be added 
until 24 hours after it was first 
broadcast. "We don't expect this 
to replace CNN.com," he said. 

As enormous as the news col- 
lection is, it is only the beginning, 
Mr. Kahle said. The plan is to "go 
back" year by year, and slowly 
add news video going back to the 
start of television. That will re- 
quire some new and perhaps 
more challenging methodology 
ause the common use of 
vming only started 



Mb 31 pw— • tgf in mh 



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Brewster Kahle, founder of th» Internet Archive, in theompan 

Mr. Kahle said some new tech- rupt commerce enough that they Archive has emt 
mque, perhaps involving word get upset with us." "Yes, we v. 

recognition, would be necess But th« able to make cover.. 

e need some interface t! M ambitious as 1956 polr nons av 

good enough and doesn't inter- all the other services the Internet able," Mr. Kahle s<t 



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have been quietly worKmg 
together on a bid for San Fran- 
cisco to be the host city of the 
Super Bowl, The Chronicle has 
learned. 



Francisco will be in contention 
for American sports' most 
widely watched event in early 
2016 or 2017. While the game 



SUNDAY PROFILE 

Brewster Kahle 

His mission 
— preserve 
our fleeting 
digital past 

By Benny Evangelista 

Brewster Kahle was a 19- 
year-old computer science 
student at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology when a 
friend posed a simple, yet 
life-changing question: "What 
can you do with your life that 
is worthwhile?" 

Kahle came up with two 
answers. The first, developing 
a microchip to ensure the pri- 
vacy of telephone conversa- 
tions, didn't pan out. But 32 
years later, Kahle is still happi- 
ly pursuing his second big idea 
— to create the digital- age 
version of the Great Library of 
Alexandria. 

His Internet Archive — 
fittingly based in an old Rich- 
mond District church that 
architecturally harks back to 
the ancient Egyptian library — 
is building a rich repository of 
modern digital culture. It's 
best known for the online 
Wayback Machine, which 
provides a searchable online 
museum of the Internet, ar- 
chiving more than 150 billion 
Web pages that have appeared 
since 1996. The nonprofit ar- 
chive stretches beyond the 

Kahle continues on A14 



INDEX 

Bay Area CI Horoscope 47 

Books Fl Movies 29 

Business Dl Nightlife 43 

Classified D8 Theater 38 

Autos BIO Food & Wine Gl 

Homes Real Estate Home & Garden PI 

Jnhs D9 Insieht El 





Dairyman Ray Souza in Turlock 

AGRICULTURE 



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SFGate.com I Printed on recycled paper | $3.00 ••••* 

TOP OF THE NEWS 

World/Nation 

►► Campaign 2012: Mitt 
Romney rallies college 
students in all-important 
Ohio. AlO 

Sporting Green 

►» Back home: Tim Lin- 
cecum, left, and the Gi- 
ants are set to open the 
National League Cham- 
pionship Series against 

Carlos Avila Gonzalez / The Chronicle the Cardinals. Bl 



Napa^Mey 





Special Section 

It's the perfect time for 

locals to savor Napa. Ml 

SFiS Style 

Wine Country's artists 
and designers. LI 

Travel 

The enduring appeal of 
souvenir tchotchkes. HI 



Bay Area 

►► Oakland pot: City 
takes on feds in court 
battle to save nation's 
largest pot club. CI 

►► Tuition: Foundation 
spending $500 million 
to send 15,000 Africans 
to college. CI 

Business 

►► Sizing up mobile: 

Smartphones and tab- 
lets keep changing size. 
What's going on? Dl 



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Let's Go to the Videotape: 

Nonprofit Offers News Clips I Your life h 



By Geoffrey A. Fowler 
And Reach Hagey 

For those who envy Jon Stew- 
art's ability to have TV news 
clips at his fingertips, a new In- 
ternet library service may be just 
the thing. 

On Monday, a San Francisco 
nonprofit called the Internet Ar- 
chive launched a free service 



closed captioning, designed for 
the deaf, to allow anyone to 
search its archives, pull up video 
and link to 30-second clips. 

For TV news companies, many 
of which are still trying to figure 
out how to make money online, 
the question is whether they will 
see the service as a long-needed 
archive— or a trampling on their 
intellectual property rights. 

In preparation for launch of 



three years, and others for as 
long as 10 years. 

The idea, said Internet Ar- 
chive founder Brewster Kahle, is 
to "let 1,000 Jon Stewarts 
bloom." Like the comedian who 
hosts "The Daily Show/' which is 
known for skewering clips from 
news shows, ordinary people 
should be able to "compare and 
contrast content in a way that 
we've been able to do for the 
print press for a long time, and 



that will let people sort through 

archives of every national news the servicV,TntemeTAr7mVe has 

S: thG J* ^ S R erVke ' been reCOrdil * * wide swath of never been able to do S 
called TV News Search & Borrow, news programming across some on TV" said Mr Kahle 
uses transcripts produced for 20 networks for at least the past Print news 'companies for 

years battled with Google Inc. 
over excerpting their content for 
its news aggregation site. And 
TV content owners have sued to 
have their content taken down 
from sites that archive clips or 
broadcast it live without individ- 
ual licensees. 

The Internet Archive doesn't 
have licenses, but Mr. Kahle said 
it has reached out to all the 
broadcast news departments to 
discuss potential partnerships. 
ABC News and NBC News con- 
firmed they have been contacted 
^ by the Internet Archive, but de- 
| dined to comment further, citing 
| ongoing talks. CBS News con- 
| firmed it had been contacted, but 
^ declined to comment. CNN de- 
Please turn to page B4 




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1 2012 Dow Jones d Company. All Rights Reserved. 



THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. 



For Bruce Willis, 
Vodka Is No Tonic 

LIQUOR INDUSTRY B2 

Tuesday, September 18, 2012 | Bl 



GE Feels Its Own Cuts 

As Employees Foot Bigger Share of Health Bills, Use of Medical Imaging Declines 



By Kate Linebaugh 



General Electric Co.'s $18 bil- 
lion health-care business is being 
forced to navigate a slowdown in 
medical imaging— one that in 
some ways has been aggravated 
by GE itself. 

GE put its 85.000 U.S. white- 
collar workers OB a high-deduct- 
ible health plan in an effort to 



a quarter, as covered employees' 
overall use of health services 
fell, according to the company. 
That is good news for GE 
proper, which last year expanded 
the plan to include its 45,000 
hourly and union workers. But it 
is bad news for GE's health-care 
business, which is one of the 
world's biggest makers of MRI 
machines and CT scanners. 



costs, but there were concerns 
about the impact on sales. 

GE isn't alone. A number of 
other giant employers, including 
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. and 
Chrysler Group LLC, are adopt- 
ing high-deductible health plans, 
pushing down the use of imaging 
by privately insured Americans. 

Meanwhile, Medicare has been 
cutting reimbursement rates for 



To adjust, GE Healthcare is 
trying to expand businesses with 
better growth prospects like ul- 
trasound, diagnostics and a med- 
ical-device unit that sells every- 
thing from incubators to blood- 
pressure monitors. It is also 
focusing on emerging markets, 
where growth is stronger but 
where hospitals need less com- 
plex—and cheaper— machines. 



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A NEWS CcnrOBATIOH COHMNY 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18, 2012 - VOL. CCLX NO. 66 



WSJ.com 



**•• $2.00 



DJIA 13553.10 ▼ 40.27 0.3% NASDAQ 3178.67 t 0.2% NIKKEI Closed (9159.39) STOXX 600 275.01 ▼ 0.3% 10-YR.TREAS. A 9/32, yield 1.838% OIL $96.62 T $2.38 GOLD $1,767.70 T $2.10 EURO $1.3116 YEN 78.71 



What's News 



Business 3 Finance 

A plunge in crude oil rip- 
pled through financial 
markets, leaving traders con- 
fused and regulators seeking 
answers. Prices dropped more 
than $3 in less than a minute 
late in the trading day, just as 
trading volume spiked. The 
move dragged down gold, 
copper and even the euro. C4 
■ Stocks fell as concerns 



.1 -1 _ „* *—. J M 



World-Wide 

■ Chicago's teachers strike 
moved to the courtroom. 

The walkout that has shut 
350,000 students out of 
classes, and pushed the city 
into a national debate over 
teachers and unions' power, 
continued for a sixth day, as a 
judge declined to immediately 
order public-school teachers 
back to work. He asked for 




Chinese fi: 



Chi 



ats end their summer fishing ban and head Monday toward a section of the East China Sea under dispute by China and Japaa 

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Dr Kenneth L. Garver was a 
Pittsburgh pediatrician who spe- 
cialized in medical genetics. The 
patriarch of a large Roman Cath- 
olic family, he had treated pa- 
tient! considering abortion but 
was strongly opposed to it 
"We sat across the table and 



live ^aiuum- vun-M- ~ - — 
foundly influenced his life as a 
husband, father and politician. 
Over the past two decades, he 
has undergone a religious trans- 
formation that is now spurring a 
national conversation about faith 
in the public sphere. 



In a Flood Tide of Digital Data, 
An Ark Full of Books and Film 



By DAVID STREITFELD 

RICHMOND, Calif. - In a way. A Silicon Valley entrepre- 



wooden warehouse in this indus- 
trial suburb, the 20th century is 
being stored in case of digital dis- 
aster. 

Forty-foot shipping containers 
stacked two by two are stuffed 
with the most enduring, as well 
as some of the most forgettable, 
books of the era. Every week, 
20,000 new volumes arrive, many 
of them donations from libraries 
and universities thrilled to un- 
load material that has no place in 
the Internet Age. 

Destined for immortality one 
day last week were "American 
Indian Policy in the 20th Centu- 
ry," "All New Crafts for Hallow- 
een," "The Portable Faulkner," 
"What to Do When Your Son or 
Daughter Divorces" and "Temp- 
tation's Kiss," a romance. 

"We want to collect one copy of 
every book," said Brewster 
Kahle, who has spent $3 million 
to buy and operate this reposi- 
tory situated just north of San 
Francisco. "You can never tell 
what is going to paint the portrait 
of a culture." 

As society embraces all forms 
of digital entertainment, this lat- 
ter-day Noah is looking the other 



neur who made his fortune sell- 
ing a data-mining company to 
Amazon.com in 1999, Mr, Kahle 
founded and runs the Internet 
Archive, a nonprofit organization 
devoted to preserving Web pages 
— 150 billion so far — and making 
texts more widely available. 
But even though he started his 
Continued on Page 4 




LIANNE MILTON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES 

Brewster Kahle, the founder 
of the Internet Archive. 



faith could affec 
this week's Supe 
nating contests, 
with cbnservativ 
pecially in the St 
off voters uncon 
so much religion 



Bean 



i 

It was dan 
did and I cr 
barbed-wire 
from Syria 
crossing froi 
bloodiest cor 
ploding just 
wooded mou; 
side. 

The smu| 
horses, thou] 
for us. The> 
and supplier 
That is the a 
up largely < 
Bashar al-A 
come to inte 
understand. 

The amm 
the risk we 
not shouldei 
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Arab world 
New York Ti 
journalists £ 
7,000 people 
of the world' 
planning to s 

It turned 
the weapons 
thony was a 
badly. 

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first night 
barbed wire 



INTERNATIONAL 5-9 

France s German Litmus Test 

In the French election, one of the big- 
gest issues has been Germany — or 
rat hoi, whether France should be more 
like Germany. PAGE 5 



NATIONAL 11-23 

Limbaugh Issues Apology 

The talk radio host said he "chose the 
wrong words" in calling a law student 
who spoke in support of contraceptive 
coverage a prostitute. page 17 



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